Tuesday, 9 May 2017

Shared Writing ... follow-up

I'm really starting to see a big difference in my students since spending more time on their phonics and writing rather than all our time on reading. Not only are most writing independently now - but their reading is also bumping up!

Parents are also excited and on board. Recently, a parent of a Senior Kindergarten student in my class sent me this article: https://www.parent.co/sight-words-are-so-2016-new-study-finds-the-real-key-to-early-literacy/. It's worth a read and gives plenty of research about why invented writing using existing knowledge is a very important skill.

In my phonetic knowledge teaching quest, I also learned about Teach Your Monster to Read. It's a free program on the computer (also available as an app - which is sometimes available for free as a promotion) which explicitly teaches letters and their sounds. I really like that it goes back and reviews prior learning and also sprinkles in some sight words and application of reading and spelling. Students love the different games - which are all laid out in developmental order (consonants first, short vowels - all the way up to r-controlled vowels and dipthongs).

As for shared writing, some colleagues and I have started using pieces of art (visual art, dance, music, etc.) for students to view, discuss, and write about. It's cross-curricular! Grab the freebie observation checklist at https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Student-Observation-Checklist-for-Shared-Writing-Ontario-Grade-1-Visual-Art-3151638.

To read my in-depth blog post about phonics and shared writing, go to: http://misslaidlaw.blogspot.ca/2017/02/shared-writing-for-early-writers.html.

Sunday, 26 February 2017

Shared Writing for Early Writers

I teach a group of Senior Kindergarten and Grade 1 students. When it comes to writing, my students mainly struggle with:
- sound segmentation ("sounding it out")
- encoding (assigning letters to the sounds they hear)
- writing full ideas (complete sentences)
- writing more than one sentence on a topic.

They were writing one sentence - often incomplete, and usually repetitive and simple ("I love Mom. I love Dad.").

So, enter shared writing! Usually used with upper grades with focuses on ideas, grammar, and higher-level skills, my SK/1 focus is on our needs (which were common "next steps" on our 1st Term report cards).

We do it every morning before our Daily 5 choice time (we have Gym in-between on some days - but we have to work around those schedules, right?). The reasoning behind this is so they have constant reminders to use the segmentation skills and phonics knowledge when writing independently. The oral language piece is very important too - and ties into an inquiry our Student Support Teacher is doing concerning the importance and development of oral language and conversation skills. My students crave it and ask for it; it's become part of our routine.

We use the "Let's Talk About It!" picture boards. They've been collecting dust in our teacher workroom. You could easily use pieces of art, newspaper pictures, or pictures from Google Images. Students choose a picture at the beginning of our day to be used during our shared writing session.

We start by looking at the picture. Students talk with a partner or small groups. This is excellent for building oral communication skills, gathering and building ideas, and Learning Skills (especially "Collaboration"). 

As you can see, talking with their groups can get quite animated!
After, we share our ideas as a class. I do this organically - no hands. They instinctually take turns - politely interrupt and add and ask questions. If you prefer, you can collect and share ideas with traditional raising hands and taking turns as appointed by the teacher. This is an excellent time to also accept, analyse, and choose between conflicting ideas. For example, some students thought the tiger was growling - until one student said it was yawning. They looked at its body language (and it was laying under a tree) and decided it was yawning.

Students decided the tiger was yawning - not growling.
I take the pen (well, smelly marker!). I do the writing during shared writing for a variety of reasons - including time management. I need to maintain our learning focuses: sound segmentation, encoding, and writing more than one sentence on a topic.

"Where do we begin? What's a good idea or sentence to introduce what's happening here?" I remind students to stay away from vague pronouns such as it. "What if our reader couldn't see the picture? Would they know what it is?"

Then, word by word, we segment. Students tell me which letter to write down. Some students might know it's on our word wall and run to get the word (this happened when we needed "bear") and some might already know the spelling of a sight word ("out" and "to" are common ones in our writing). It's important to note that PROPER SPELLING DOESN'T MATTER! These are beginning writers - and many SK/1 students are at the Short Vowel Stage in Words Their Way, so it's unfair to expect them to know long vowel patterns, r-controlled vowels, and dipthongs.

Why are words spelled wrong? Because students are applying the code they know. Therefore, this is developmentally-appropriate. It doesn't discourage them by correcting and "teaching" all the nuances of the English language and its spellings.

I constantly reread what I've written to see where I am in the sentence and to make sure everything is on the same topic. Students tell me which ideas to write next.

Here's our first Shared Writing with this focus. It's quite simple - but includes a few inferences. The sentences are very simple.

Here is our most recent shared writing. Within a month, students have added details (names), made more inferences, and explored a variety of punctuation (quotations) and grammar rules.
I've definitely noticed a big impact on my students' independent writing!

Grade 1 writing - with some help segmenting. The student encoded independently.
Students can write about whatever they want. To save them from wasting time thinking of an idea, we have an "idea box" - a brightly-coloured box on our shelf next to their journals. In it are cut-outs from a variety of magazines (travel, outdoors, home, wedding, teaching, construction union, parenting, fashion, etc.). I am conscious of including diversities - such as special needs found in sections of educational supplies catalogues, people of colour, religious and cultural clothing and regalia, et cetera.

It's no longer junk mail! Cut pictures from magazines to add to your "idea box" to inspire student writing!

Read about how I keep track of my assessments (like the one provided above) in my binder at http://misslaidlaw.blogspot.ca/2017/02/assessment-and-tracking.html.

Math Routine

We have a class set of individual whiteboards and a variety of dry-erase markers. The whiteboards are stored in a milk crate in our classroom.

On one side of the board, I've used packing tape to add a number line from 0-10. You could easily add number lines to 20 or higher - depending on what your students are working on and your focus. I added 0-10 because my SK/1s focused on adding and subtracting to 10 using a number line for Term One - now we are beginning to move on to 20 (the Ontario Grade 1 curriculum).

We do 4 skills at a time. Every 4-6 weeks, we change up our routine to learn and review other skills. Our skills have included:

1. Rekenrek

This is great for subitizing, addition, subtraction, and even multiplication (when using more than one rack). We use the iPad app "Number Racks." There are several YouTube videos showing the versatility of rekenreks. I tell students to write the numeral to show how many beads there are - and extra bonus points if you can write a number sentence to show it!

2. Find the Missing Number

Count forward, backward, and skip-count. I learned a nice trick when at a JUMP MATH conference in Ottawa in November 2016: write your number list vertically to help students see the patterns when skip-counting! This involves Patterning and Algebra and Number Sense and Numeration skills. We use the iPad app called Doodle Buddy.

3. Translate, Extend, and/or Identify the Core of a Pattern

We also use Doodle Buddy for this. You can draw shapes, use different colours, or use the stamps (which make sounds!) to create patterns. Students copy the patterns to the whiteboard (a great time to discuss translating patterns using symbols - or naming them with letters or numbers), extend them, and circle the repeating core.

4. Adding and Subtracting 

We also use Doodle Buddy for this. Students are encouraged to use the number line. I drill into their minds: "Where do we start? Look at the symbol - is our answer getting bigger or smaller? How many bumps? Where did we land?".

5. Representing Numbers using Base 10 Blocks

We use the iPad app Number Blocks. We use this app two different ways:

- Teacher writes a numeral and the students draw it. This is great for introducing place value. "How many long tens? How many little ones?" We represent the numeral then count - which also practices skip counting (by 10s) and counting on (by 1s).

- Teacher uses the blocks to show a quantity. Students write the numeral. We use the questions "How many long tens? How many little ones?" to help students understand place value and what it really means.

See how I track my observations in this blog post!

Assessment and Tracking

Assessment and tracking in an SK/1 can be hectic. Balancing play-based learning, inquiry, and scaffolded instruction - while differentiation for your spectrum of learners can be mind-boggling at times. Post-It Notes with your observations are easily lost in the mess.

I've figured out what works for me.

1. Assessment Tracking Binder

Each student has a section (I use hold-punched file folders.). In their section is a curriculum checklist for their grade level, copies of diagnostic assessments (Sound Skills, DRAs and PMs, Phonics and Letter Screeners, Sight Words, etc.), their IEP, and samples of notable student work (especially work of concern for an Occupational Therapist or Educational Psychologist and other paraprofessionals).

When I observe a student demonstrating an understanding of curriculum expectations (through play, inquiry, conversation, or completion of an assignment), I make a note in their section on my curriculum checklists. I use green for "understands it," yellow for "with support," and red for "not yet" or "with extreme difficulty."

Here is an example of the new Ontario Kindergarten curriculum.
The curriculum repeats several expectations throughout itself.
Here, I've quickly jotted down observations.

As you can see, I do the same for Learning Skills.

Here is an example of a Learning Skills page.
This was useful when completing the Learning Skills section of the report card.
It is also useful when communicating with parents, pediatricians, and educational supports.

After the 1st term, I take these out and create new copies for the 2nd term. I found that if I kept the papers for the 1st term in the binder, it gets too full and heavy.

2. Routines, Skill Checks, and Checklists

We always start our math time with a routine. Students and I come up with 4 things we will practice - for about 4-6 weeks until we change it up. I give the questions on our iPad and SmartBoard and every student answers it using individual whiteboards. I can easily check off who gets it, who's almost there, and who doesn't get it. These are stored at the front of my assessment and tracking binder - which I have open with me while we are doing our routine.

For the students who are not quite independent yet - those are the students I bring over for more 1-on-1 or small-group conferencing for additional revision of these knowledge and skills.

The checklist was created using a table in Microsoft Word. For the headers, I just merged cells.

Student names are listed vertically along the left-hand side. When we began in September, I colour-coded my Grade 1s with one colour and my SKs with another colour. Along the top are the 4 skills of our routine. I can easily check or X and make notes when students show me their whiteboard answers. I can also easily see who hasn't completed any answers, been absent, or I haven't observed for some reason yet - those are the students who I look for next time and/or bring over for individual conferencing to see if they have these skills and knowledge.

I also use these checklists when I use my Skills Check. These are completed during individual conferencing - usually during Daily 5 time or blocks of play-based learning time.


3. Expectation-Grouped Checklists

I usually used these when teaching Grades 1/2 - but I have used them for my Grade 1 students in my SK/1 room. Usually used with Math, I pull expectations from across the 5 strands that relate to the unit we are on. Then, through assignments, play-based learning, conferencing, conversations, observations, et cetera, I make notes on student achievement. These are stored at the front of my assessment and tracking binder.

How do you keep track of student learning in your room?

Thursday, 8 October 2015

I've always had a hard time with assessments and keeping track of them - especially after changing my beliefs on tests and moving down to the primary grades - where it's more about observations and conversations. In previous years, I used class list and assigning grades or marks or checkmarks next to their name under a brief description of what we did. It was hard to see at-a-glance how the child was doing - and everything had to be translated for report cards.

Then I got an idea. It really happened last year, when job action saw no comments on report cards. I was teaching an academically-needy Grades 1/2 class. I made this product:

Starting this year in SK/1, I knew my room would be incorporating even more inquiry-based learning, conferencing, observing, and seemingly "completely random" covering of the curriculum expectations. It was also a goal of mine to become more organic in teaching/learning - to teach what's important to students, what they're interested in, and keep the curriculum expectations running yearlong instead of just compartmentalized.

I thought - why can't I use these for documentation, too? Here's an example from an SK's section of my assessment binder:

I use a colour-coding system to highlight curriculum expectations which are strengths and needs. For students whose achievements are "in the grey area," I make note of the several attempts to teach and conference with them to achieve the standard and how much support was needed for them to attain it.

It's easy to pop back and forth from the SK pages and the Grade 1 pages.


As you can see, one activity (collecting, sorting, and graphing leaves) completed a few expectations in both SK and Grade 1 curricula. Want to know more about it?

I took my students on a nature walk and told them to collect interesting leaves. We came back and talked about how we can sort them - and decided by colour would be easiest. We sorted them, counted them, then graphed how many of each colour there were. Here's our co-created graph:


The next day, we went on another walk. This time, students brought their own paper bags and collected about 10 leaves each. We came back to the room and they sorted them, graphed it, then had me document their interpretations of their graphs.

Another thing I'm really excited about is my word wall. My friend cut me two boards of wood and screwed in hooks and glued on letters for me. I glued it onto the ugly concrete wall in my classroom using "No More Nails." On it, I have Dolch Pre-Primer, Primer, and Grade 1 words. I also have a few more of my word wall products - most recently, my family words. There's also their names on the word wall - complete with their pictures! The kids love it!


I've noticed it really entices students to write, write, write! I've never had a class that enjoys writing - INDEPENDENTLY(!), so much (especially at such a young age).

I pulled pairs of students to conference with me. I introduced their Word on Writing book and explained when they'd work on it. I took them on a tour of the classroom to show them writing supports - the word wall, their personal dictionaries, and the picture dictionaries. We sat back down and I explained that good writers need an idea and asked them to think what they'd like to write about - which could be ANYTHING. Then, I said it's not just enough to write the idea; they need to write something about the idea - explain it - in other words, write a whole sentence about it. They thought about it, told me, and I supported their writing - NOT by writing in yellow or on a Post-It, but directing them to the word wall, helping them sound segment, prompting to use the picture dictionary, or writing the word in their personal dictionary. Success!

Thursday, 27 August 2015

My Literacy Block

I've been asked a lot lately about what my literacy block looks like. I've toyed around with it a lot to find out what works for me and is easily-adaptable for occasional teachers who come to my classroom. I found something that I had high yields with, incorporates several elements of my style and philosophy, and accommodates a variety of learners (differentiated, behavioural needs, etc.).

I like having my Language block in the middle of my day. In the morning, students are often dropped off late. This is a common complaint from a lot of Kindergarten teachers I know - "Little Suzie is always 30 minutes late to class! She always missed Language!" Why don't you change it to the middle block, then? Or how about how school assemblies are always in the first block? This can wreck havoc on your plans!

My middle blocks (at the 3 schools I've taught in) are usually 100 minutes long - provided there's no planning at that time, leaving tons of room for a variety of activities and integration of other subjects. Students are awake, fed, and (hopefully) tired from recess.

Here's what my typical block looks like in the Grades 1/2 classes I've taught. I'm moving to SK/1 this year, so will be tweaking it a bit.

1. Welcome Back From Recess

Welcome back from recess. One year, I had a very high-energy class with a ton of behavioural needs and often lots of recess issues needing to be dealt with. They had nutrition break before recess. Students came in after recess and sat or lay down on the carpet and watched "Super Why" on NetFlix (I had no technology in my classroom, so I bought my own projector and iPad to facilitate this).

Last year (new school), I had a small country class of 16 students. They came in from recess, grabbed their lunchbags, and ate in the cafeteria. When I picked them up from the cafeteria - while still in line, I told them what they needed to do to prepare for class - usually: put your lunchbag away, get your literacy bin and put it on your desk, and wait quietly on the carpet. This was routine and they could recite it by heart within a week - very helpful for occasional teachers!

2. Ready to Begin

How do I start my Language block? Students are at the carpet and I am at the easel. Every week, we have a new poem to close read. Close reading is a skill typically taught in intermediate grades and in high school - reading the text several times with difference focuses: vocabulary, connections, inferences (much like how we, in primary grades, have a read-aloud that's the same every day but each day focuses on a different skill).

On the easel, I have a zoomed photocopy of the poem. I tell students I will read the poem once and their purpose for listening is to listen for pleasure. I read the poem out loud in a natural voice. Then, I read it again and tell the students their purpose for listening. However, unlike in older grades, our focus is on decoding skills and expanding vocabulary (if you use CAFE reading strategies, the A and E skills!).

For example, on Monday, I will say "Now, your purpose for listening is to find words you don't know. When you hear a word you don't know, please [clap your hands, touch your nose, stick your tongue out...]." On Tuesday, they may look for the /k/ sound - and so on. As the year goes on, we move on to blends, digraphs, long vowel patterns, and maybe prefixes and suffixes like -ed and -ing. I base what decoding skills to look for by my information from guided reading, Words Their Way assessments, Sound Skills assessments (syllables, sound segmentation, rhymes, etc.), reading levels, and running records.

A student fills-in-the-blank with a sight word for this particular poem.
This is a good chance to explicitly teach penmanship and proper letter formation!

After the second reading, I invite one student at a time to come up and mark up the text. For example, on Monday, we circle unknown words and draw pictures to help show us what it means. I tell them what it means (strategy: ask someone) and later in the year, model how to use dictionaries or the Internet to find its meaning. The phonemes throughout the week are highlighted in different colours - for example, Tuesday's /k/ sounds in yellow, Wednesday's /ch/ in green, Thursday's "ing" in purple, and Friday's /ee/ in orange. I've also taught punctuation with our weekly poems (capitals, ending punctuation, quotation marks, etc.).

After that, students go to their own desks. In their literacy bin is a poetry duotang. Every Monday, they receive their weekly poem. Time saver: spend a few days to explicitly teach them how to put their new pages in the duotang. This will save you aggravation and also save your thumbs - as well as teach them independence and develop fine motor skills. On their own copy, students do the same as what we marked up on our master copy of the poem.

Kill two birds with one stone by integrating - Science, Social Studies ... even Math!
Also, you can see we found "words within words" (including compound words) and circled them.
Quick note: on Mondays, when we find unknown words, I also make them add the words into our "Word Collector" - which I photocopy on coloured paper and place in the front of their duotang. One made specifically for primary grades is available for free at my TPT store at https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Expanding-Vocabulary-Word-Collector-FREEBIE-1332540. As always, feedback is greatly appreciated.

Early finishers can read the poem to themselves then to a friend (or two - or three). This helps them build reading fluency and holds them accountable to learn how to read. By Friday, even the readers who struggle most are able to read the poem - even if they've just memorized it. I also give them the option to go back and read their favourite poems from earlier weeks.

An example from June's weekly poetry close read in a Grades 1/2 classroom.

Where do I find these poems? There are a few TPT sellers who have them for sale, but I prefer using phonics poetry resources - usually by Scholastic. I borrow the books from the Queen's University Teachers' Resource Centre (my school board has a partnership with the local Faculty of Education and we're allowed to borrow!). Experienced teachers often have a few of these books lying around, too. On Remembrance Day week, I teach them the first few verses of Flanders Fields. We learn Oh Canada's lyrics - and during celebrations/holidays, we learn poetry and lyrics to do with that celebration, holiday, or season.

3. Daily 5

Students clean up (put their poetry book back in their literacy bin and put any markers/crayons away) and meet me on the carpet. I assign Daily 5 stations. I like the idea of choice - but it never worked for me in a Grade 1/2 classroom.

Details of how I assign centres can be found in this blog post: http://misslaidlaw.blogspot.ca/2014/09/centres-organization.html. Students stay on the same station for the whole time - so really, it's not "Daily 5." However, students practice each skill at some point during this block. I do not include "Read to Somebody" as I've never had very much success with it - and have built time into the poetry lesson to accommodate it.

Our time at the centre is usually 15-20 minutes long. Obviously, we practice building stamina and begin at 1 or 2 minutes. One students are able to do it independently, I am able to have guided reading meetings and conferencing with students. I won't get into extreme detail about guided meetings - but I use a variety of resources - including Reading A-Z, commercial guided reading resources, Sound Skills games and lessons, Word Their Way games, and other meaningful, highly interactive gems I've come across. I have a binder with a section for each student where I write anecdotal notes about their progress, including: reading level, strengths and needs (The CAFE book by The Sisters is impeccable for this - especially for those new to teaching Primary!, and other useful information. This is great when it's time to talk to occupational therapists, speech pathologists, educational psychologists, parent-teacher nights, collaborative inquiries and staff meetings, student support teachers and writing report cards.

My Word Wall is a hybrid: on rings and stapled onto the corkboard. On rings, I have Dolch words (http://misslaidlaw.blogspot.ca/2014/08/its-final-countdown.html). I have them colour-coded by level. They're available for purchase at a very reasonable price at my TPT store. They've been laminated and hole-punched and put on a shower ring (usually a dozen in a package at Dollarama). This helps students with Work on Writing and Word Work stations.

Words that change with the unit (Math, Science, Social Studies) are stapled for quick-access (and removal after the unit) in the appropriate spot on the word wall. Students usually end up writing these words in their personal dictionaries.

I've chosen to use Words Their Way in my classroom. I assess students at the beginning of the year (end of September - maybe October), after Winter Break, perhaps around March Break, and at the end of the year (to show growth). This information is not only useful in-class (and to help know what to do with the poetry decoding and guided reading), but to share for IPRCs and on IEPs.

This is the base of my Word Work program. I've chosen to give spelling tests every Friday - typically, I have 2-4 groups of students based on levels they achieve  (consonants, short vowels, blends/digraphs, and/or long vowels, usually - through the span of the year). The resource is great - word lists (helpful for choosing your weekly spelling words - I focus on 3 and move to 5 in the last month or two ... kids love it). I don't even keep track of how they do - as spelling is a minor component of our Language (Writing) curriculum in Ontario. However, I don't assign homework - but gives parents/guardians who love the idea of homework something to do other than "just read."

4. "The Lesson"

Look how much learning has already been done! This part of my day varies - depending on our learning goal.

This is when we have our read-aloud. Teacher tip: read the same book every day of the week! For example, on Monday - don't even read it! Make predictions and make a schema (prior knowledge) chart. On Tuesday, read the book (or even stop in the middle and ask students to say/write their prediction about the end). On Wednesday, practice retelling then read the rest of the story then do an after-reading follow-up. On Thursday, play a YouTube video of the story's reading - or find it on EPIC! For Educators (a free app on the iPad), TumbleBooks, or another media site. On Friday, have students do an extension activity - act it out, make connections, an Art activity, et cetera.

This should be your entire block. As you can see, students have the opportunities to practice a variety of skills, move around, and aren't on one task for too long (less risk of tuning out, behavioural issues, giving up, and just plain not having fun while learning). Early finishers can complete unfinished work or have their choice of a Daily 5 station.

What's in their literacy bins?
- personal dictionary (I like this freebie: https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Personal-Dictionary-Foldable-467202)
- poetry book
- any other folders and duotangs you use (novel studies, book studies, Sound Skills, word/sound sort books)
- sometimes, I put at-level books from Reading A-Z or guided reading resources (especially for lower-level readers)

Friday, 10 April 2015

Learning Money

Well, it's been busy! I'm sorry for not keeping up with blogging regularly.

We've been learning all about Canadian coins since the March Break. I've actually continued the probability unit and started fractions as well - all accommodated through my BUILD Math centres. Here's what my BUILD bins contain:

B - Buddy Games - Counting Coins: Gardening Edition (adding pennies, nickels, and dimes)
Students use a die to make their way through the board game, collecting the coins they land on. The person with the most money when they reach the end wins! We may be getting a class bunny over the weekend, so the kids were super excited to see rabbits on our board game (pure coincidence!).

 Counting Coins - Gardening Edition, adding pennies, nickels, and coins

U - Using Manipulatives - These are my Easter egg coin identification activities. On one side of the plastic Easter egg, I have the name of the coin. On the other side, I have the value. Inside, I have a plastic or paper representation of the coin. Students open the eggs, empty them out, and mix them up ... then put them all back together! PRO TIP: store these in an empty egg carton! I have two sets: an easy one (the colours match up - so for example, the pennies will have all-pink eggs, dimes all-yellow eggs, etc.) and a difficult (the colours don't match, so the eggs will be two-coloured once matched up).

 Easter Egg Money Identification

I - Independent Math - Here, students work in their JUMP Math workbooks. They have a choice between Money, Fractions, or Probability. They're making the connection between money and fractions and also fractions and probability. I really like having all of these strands "alive." To make my life easier, I made some papers and put them in the bin which tell kids which pages to do for each section - and reminds them to date stamp their page!

L - Learning Numbers - I have a fractions sorting/matching activity by Mrs. Beattie's Classroom that she so graciously gave away as a flash freebie earlier this week. She's my TPT mentor and former teaching next-door-neighbour, so I always look forward to using her products. Students have three categories to sort pictures of fractions into (both circle and rectangular representations): more than 1/2, equal to 1/2, and less than 1/2. It's great for my 1s to begin comparing fractions and perfect for my grade 2s to start relating and comparing fractional pieces.

 Beginning Fractions - Mrs Beattie's Classroom

I also found an old fractions game when I inherited my classroom. It seems to be some sort of spinner game - probably designed for older grades, but we don't use the spinner game portion. Students enjoy making the pie in several ways and exploring fractional sizes. They're also using fraction language all by themselves!

 Fractions Are As Easy As Pie

I've also put a "clothesline" for skip counting on my huge, beautiful window. I used a hot glue gun to put plastic hooks on either side of the window and one right on the window (because it sags when all the numbers and clothespins are put on). I wrote the numbers, counting by 5s, to 100 and put the cards in random order one day. My little guys figured out the activity all on their own - and it's quite popular!

 Skip Counting Clothesline

D - Doing Math - Here, students use paper money manipulatives to represent money amounts under supervision of either myself or our peer tutor from the high school (a benefit of being a K-12 school!). There are a few variations of this activity in my Canadian Money product - including the paper manipulatives.

 Canadian Money - by Miss Laidlaw's Classroom

Happy springtime!

- Miss Laidlaw